Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, 2023 (Scopus)
The trefoil factor family (TFF) is a relatively new family of peptides. In some studies, an association between trefoil factors and inflammatory diseases of the nasal and paranasal sinuses has been suggested. However, it is still not clear whether there is a relationship between trefoil peptides and inflammation of the respiratory tract. The aims of this study are to determine the presence of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 in the nasal mucosa and investigate their relationships with inflammation by using rat models of various sinonasal inflammations. Nasal tampon, lipopolysaccharide, and ovalbumin were used to generate rat models of sinonasal inflammation, i.e., rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis. The study was conducted on seventy rats in seven groups, each with ten rats: four groups with rhinosinusitis, two groups with allergic rhinitis, and a control group. Histological evaluation of sinonasal mucosa from all rats was performed, and Trefoil factors were investigated using immunohistochemical methods. All three TFF peptides were detected in rat nasal mucosa by histological evaluation. No significant differences in the trefoil factor scores were observed among the study groups. A significant correlation between the TFF1 and TFF3 scores and loss of cilia was identified (p < 0.05). In conclusion, no direct relationship between sinonasal inflammation and TFF scores was observed. However, a possible association between the TFF and epithelial damage or regeneration in sinonasal inflammation can be suggested based on the correlation observed between the TFF1 and TFF3 scores and scores of cilia loss.