Bacterial adhesion to composite resins produced by additive and subtractive manufacturing


Odontology, vol.112, no.2, pp.460-471, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 112 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10266-023-00862-5
  • Journal Name: Odontology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.460-471
  • Keywords: 3D printing, Bacterial adhesion, CAD/CAM milling, Composite Resins, Surface roughness
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and contact angle of composite resins produced by CAD/CAM milling and three-dimensional (3D) printing for permanent restorations as well as the adhesion of S. mutans and S. sanguinis bacteria to these composites. Three CAD/CAM milling composite resins (Vita Enamic-VE, Cerasmart-CE, Lava Ultimate-LU) and three 3D printing resins (Varseo Smile Crown plus-VSC, Saremco print Crowntech-SPC, Formlabs 3B Permanent crown-FLP) were selected. Twenty samples were prepared for each group. Using a contact profilometer, the surface roughness was determined, and an optical goniometer was used to quantify the contact angle. To evaluate the bacterial adhesion, composite specimens were immersed in mucin containing artificial saliva. All samples were incubated for 24 h at 37°C in 5% CO2. CFUs were determined by counting colonies after the incubation period. Surface roughness values of test samples were the highest in the Group VSC [0.46 (0.14) µm], whereas the lowest values were found in the Group LU [0.23 (0.05) µm]. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in contact angle values (p > 0.05). The S. mutans adhesion extent on the Group SPC was statistically higher compared to all other materials with p < 0.05. For S. sanguinis, the lowest bacterial adhesion value was recorded in Group CE (3.00 × 104 CFU/ml) and statistically significant differences were found with Group VE and VSC (p < 0.05). Different digital manufacturing techniques and material compositions can affect the surface roughnesses of composite resins. All composite resin samples have hydrophobic characteristics. Microbial adhesion of the tested composite resins may be varied depending on the bacterial species. S. mutans showed much more adhesion to these materials than S. sanguinis.