Previous open renal surgery increased vascular complications in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) compared with primary and secondary PCNL and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy patients: A retrospective study

Yesil S., Ozturk U., Goktug H. N. G., Tuygun C., NALBANT İ., Imamoglu M. A.

Urologia Internationalis, vol.91, no.3, pp.331-334, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 91 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1159/000351968
  • Journal Name: Urologia Internationalis
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.331-334
  • Keywords: Haemorrhage, Open surgery, Percutaneous nephrolithotomy, Vascular complications, STAGHORN CALCULI, MULTIPLE TRACTS, STONES, EMBOLIZATION
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: No


Objective: To evaluate the vascular complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients who have undergone previous open surgery, PCNL and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Patients and Methods: 360 patients who underwent a PCNL procedure were included into the study. The patients were divided into 4 groups: group 1: primary PCNL (n = 232); group 2: previous open nephrolithotomy (n = 42); group 3: previous PCNL (n = 33); group 4: previous ESWL (n = 63). The periods of operation and fluoroscopy use of the groups were compared in terms of residual stones, with haematuria, pre-operation and post-operation first-day haemoglobin values. Patients with persistent haematuria were assessed through ultrasonography (US), Doppler US, computed tomography and angiography. Results: Upon comparison of the patients' pre- and post-operative haemoglobin changes, haemoglobin was statistically higher in the previous open operation group than the others (p = 0.02). Permanent and intermittent haematuria were detected in 12 (3%) and 7 patients (1%), respectively. Angiography was done in 7 (1.94%) patients. This rate was 9.5% for group 2 and 3% for group 3. These rates were found to be statistically higher than compared to the other groups. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) was detected in 4 of these patients and pseudoaneurysm in 1. While 1 of the patients with AVF improved spontaneously, embolisation was applied to 4 patients. Four of the patients had had a previous open operation, while 1 had had a PCNL treatment. Conclusions: Vascular complication is a rare complication of PCNL that can be successfully managed with angioembolisation. Our results indicate that previous open surgery significantly predicted the occurrence of these lesions. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.