Measurement of Uncertainty in Prediction of No-Reflow Phenomenon after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Using Systemic Immune Inflammation Index: The Gray Zone Approach

ÖZTÜRK E., ESENBOĞA K., Kurtul A., KILIÇKAP M., Karaagaoglu E., Karakaya J.

Diagnostics, vol.13, no.4, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/diagnostics13040709
  • Journal Name: Diagnostics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: no-reflow phenomenon, primary percutaneous coronary intervention, statistical detection, systemic immune inflammation index, uncertainty
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: Yes


Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), which is a good predictive marker for coronary artery disease, can be calculated by using platelet, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. The no-reflow occurrence can also be predicted using the SII. The aim of this study is to reveal the uncertainty of SII for diagnosing ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who were admitted for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the no-reflow phenomenon. A total of 510 consecutive acute (STEMI) patients with primary PCI were reviewed and included retrospectively. For diagnostic tests which are not a gold standard, there is always an overlap between the results of patients with and without a certain disease. In the literature, for quantitative diagnostic tests where the diagnosis is not certain, two approaches have been proposed, named “grey zone” and “uncertain interval”. The uncertain area of the SII, which is given the general term “gray zone” in this article, was constructed and its results were compared with the “grey zone” and “uncertain interval” approaches. The lower and upper limits of the gray zone were found to be 611.504–1790.827 and 1186.576–1565.088 for the grey zone and uncertain interval approaches, respectively. A higher number of patients inside the gray zone and higher performance outside the gray zone were found for the grey zone approach. One should be aware of the differences between the two approaches when making a decision. The patients who were in this gray zone should be observed carefully for detection of the no-reflow phenomenon.