Objective: Cervicogenic headache (CH) is a relatively common form of headache arising from structures of the neck. The mechanisms underlying pain stimulation were not fully clarified yet. To our knowledge, there is no study investigating the relationship between CH and oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels during headache and headache-free period in CH patients and to assess the importance of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in CH pathogenesis. Material and Methods: Fifteen patients with CH and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 49.21 ± 13.53 years in patients with CH and 51.26 ± 11.7 years in the control group. We measured serum MDA levels as an index of oxidative stress in 15 women with CH during headache and headache-free period and in 15 healthy women controls. Results: MDA levels were higher in CH patients during headache period compared to healthy controls (7.12 ± 2.34 μmol/L vs 4.99 ± 1.18 μmol/L; p< 0.05) whereas the levels were comparable during headache-free period (5.85 ± 1.51 μmol/L ve 4.99 ± 1.18 μmol/L). Conclusion: Increasing levels of MDA during attacks supports the opinion that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of pain in patients with CH. Further investigations with larger sample groups are necessary to clarify the pathogenesis in CH patients for successful treatment of CH. Copyright © 2007 by Türkiye Klinikleri.