Background. Rough, poorly polished resin-based composite (RBC) surfaces contribute to staining, plaque accumulation, gingival irritation and recurrent caries. Proper finishing and polishing enhance both the esthetics and the longevity of restored teeth. Methods. The authors evaluated the influence of various finishing and polishing techniques on the surface roughness of four microhybrid RBCs. Thirty samples of each material were cured under Mylar matrix strips (Yates and Bird/Motloid, Chicago). All microhybrid RBC specimens were finished with multifluted carbide burs, except for the Mylar matrix strip samples, and then were polished using one of four finishing systems: Sof-Lex contouring and polishing disks (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn.); Enhance Finishing System (Dentsply-Caulk, Milford, Del.) followed by Prisma Gloss (Dentsply-Caulk) polishing paste application; Astropol finishing, polishing and high-gloss polishing system (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein); and Astrobrush polishing system (Ivoclar Vivadent). The authors tested the samples to obtain average surface roughness and analyzed the values. Results. The use of the Astrobrush technique caused the greatest roughness on all RBC specimens. The smoothest surface was produced with a carbide bur followed by aluminum oxide disks, Astropol technique and Enhance technique. Overall, there were differences in surface quality among the materials. InTen-S (Ivoclar Vivadent) had statistically lower surface roughness values after finishing and polishing with the Astrobrush technique, compared with the other RBCs. Conclusion. The highest surface roughness values were achieved after the Astrobrush technique was used. The Sof-Lex aluminum oxide disks, and Enhance and Astropol techniques provided the smoothest surface. Clinical Implications. The Sof-Lex, Enhance and Astropol techniques produced a smooth surface after the finishing and polishing of materials, while the Astrobrush technique yielded the least favorable results.