Tularemia: A re-emerging disease


ANKARA UNIVERSITESI VETERINER FAKULTESI DERGISI, vol.60, no.4, pp.275-280, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 60 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1501/vetfak_0000002592
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.275-280
  • Keywords: Francisella tularensis, ulceroglandular, oropharyngeal, streptomycin, FRANCISELLA-TULARENSIS, OUTBREAK, TURKEY
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: No


Tularemia is a bacterial zoonotic disease. The etiologic agent is Francisella tularensis which is a gram negative coccobacillus and has an exceedingly low infectious dose. Natural infections with F. tularensis have been reported in a range of vertebrates including mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Tularemia occurs in humans only in the northern hemisphere and most frequently in Scandinavian countries, northern America, Japan and Russia. It is also an epidemic disease in some part of Turkey. The infection is transmitted to humans by arthropod bites (ticks, flies, mosquitoes), by direct contact with infected animals, by contact with infected tissues or fluids of infectious animals, by ingestion of contaminated water or food or by inhalation of infective aerosols. Clinical forms are ulceroglandular or glandular, oculoglandular, oropharyngeal, respiratory and typhoidal forms. The diagnosis is based on the isolation of F.tularensis and/or positive serology. In the therapy, the first choice is an aminoglycosides (streptomycin or gentamicin) and alternative choice is ciprofloxacin or doxycycline. Duration of therapy is suggested as 10-14 days. A live attenuated vaccine is only in use some parts of the former Soviet Union but no licensed vaccine available.