© 2021 Phytochemical Society of EuropeThe aim of the present study is to determine the in vitro cholinesterase inhibitory effects of the tubers of Corydalis DC. species growing in Turkey belonging to Papaveraceae family. This genus comprises of approximately 470 species distributed in the world and is represented 17 species and 22 taxons, 8 of which are endemic, in the flora of Turkey. Some Corydalis species are used in folk medicine for the memory enhancement in Europe and China. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of the ethanolic extracts prepared from tubers collected from 54 populations are screened by the slightly modified spectrophotometric method. The highest anticholinesterase compound/s were determined by assay-guided fractionation and their structures were elucidated through chromatographic (LC-Q-ToF-MS) and extensive spectroscopic techniques. According to the results, canadine, berberine and dehydrocorydaline from protoberberine-type isoquinoline alkaloids were exerted the most potent inhibitory effect against two enzymes. This is the first study determining anticholinesterase compounds of Corydalis species growing in Turkey.