Objectives: To evaluate in a prospective study the coexistence of testicular microlithiasis with various scrotal pathologies and the relationship with testicular tumors in symptomatic patients presenting with various scrotal complaints. Methods: A total of 197 male patients of reproductive age who applied to our clinic between December 2004 and June 2005 with various scrotal complaints were included in the study. Patient complaints were of pain, swelling, smallness of the testes, and infertility. Patients were evaluated according to their medical history, scrotal ultrasonograms, tumor markers, and hormone profiles after physical examination. Independent t test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean (±SD) age of the 197 patients was 28.3 ± 8.5 years. Pathologic findings were testicular tumors (1.8%), cryptorchidism (3.5%), varicoceles (75%), hydroceles (9.8%), epididymal cysts (9%), and atrophic testes (0.9%). Testicular tumors were found in 4 patients, and testicular microlithiasis was observed in 3 (75%) of these patients. Testicular microlithiasis ratios were determined as 25% in cryptorchidism, 6.5% in varicocele, 23% in hydrocele, 10% in epididymal cyst, and 50% in atrophic testes. The rate of testicular microlithiasis was significantly higher in patients with testicular tumors. The mean follow-up of patients was 19.5 months (range, 16 to 23 months), during which no new cancer case was detected. Conclusions: Testicular microlithiasis was more frequently observed in patients presenting with mass lesions and testicular tumors. Our findings suggest that symptomatic patients should be warned and kept aware of this issue, particularly if they have risk factors for testicular cancer. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.