Comparisons of pleiotropic effects of SGLT2 inhibition and GLP-1 agonism on cardiac glucose intolerance in heart dysfunction


TURAN B. , DURAK A., OLĞAR Y., TUNCAY E.

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11010-022-04474-5
  • Title of Journal : Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
  • Keywords: Antioxidants, GLP-1, Heart, Insulin resistance, Mitochondria, Oxidative stress, SGLT2

Abstract

© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.Recent studies discuss the evidence of lesser degrees of hyperglycemia contribution to cardiovascular disease (CVD) than impaired glucose tolerance. Indeed, the biggest risk for CVD seems to shift to glucose intolerance in humans with insulin resistance. Although there is a connection between abnormal insulin signaling and heart dysfunction in diabetics, there is also a relation between cardiac insulin resistance and aging heart failure (HF). Moreover, studies have revealed that HF is associated with generalized insulin resistance. Recent clinical outcomes parallel to the experimental data undertaken with antihyperglycemic drugs have shown their beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system through a direct effect on the myocardium, beyond their ability to lower blood glucose levels and their receptor-associated actions. In this regard, several new-class drugs, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1Ra) and sodium-glucose cotransport 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), can improve cardiac health beyond their ability to control glycemia. In recent years, great improvements have been made toward the possibility of direct heart-targeting effects including modulation of the expression of specific cardiac genes in vivo for therapeutic purposes. However, many questions remain unanswered, regarding their therapeutic effects on cardiomyocytes in heart failure, although there are various cellular levels studies with these drugs. There are also some important comparative studies on the role of SGLT2i versus GLP-1Ra in patients with and without CVD as well as with or without hyperglycemia. Here, we sought to summarize and interpret the available evidence from clinical studies focusing on the effects of either GLP-1Ra or SGLT-2i or their combinations on cardiac structure and function. Furthermore, we documented data from experimental studies, at systemic, organ, and cellular levels. Overall, one can summarize that both clinical and experimental data support that either SGLT2i or GLP-1R agonists have similar benefits as cardioprotective agents in patients with or without impaired glucose tolerance.