International Journal of Sport Sciences and Health, vol.9, pp.69-75, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)
Anabolic steroids, which facilitate the achievement of the grand prize, not only increase the competition and training threshold, but also trigger substance (growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone-1, testosterone, etc.) addiction. Long-term use of these types of anabolic steroids can cause fatal diseases such as cancer. It is known that an average of 50% of athletes in some countries do not test positive in doping tests for their anabolic steroid use. This means that some of the athletes who have received Olympic medals so far have been clean in the tests, while some are registered as doping. Gene tests can be used to test claims that a genetic mutation is responsible for a positive doping test and to monitor gene doping and detect genetic markers. There are hundreds of gene variables that trigger athletic success, and the accelerated development of genetic therapy or treatment is increasing the possibility of gene doping. WADA aimed to prevent gene transfer or modifications by banning gene doping, which is the last point of unfair competition, in 2003. The probability of gene doping to be performed and to have a significant effect on the results of the competition is very low. Technology is advancing rapidly, but until we see the results of positive clinical trials that treat human diseases using gene therapy, it is unlikely that gene doping that has been attempted in under-the-ladder labs will be successfully implemented. The next century is the stepping voices of a new multi-gene and multi-factor beginning and a new world order in which digital life and molecular genetics take part together.