In this study we investigated the relationship between mortality and various factors discovered during the surgical treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hematoma in cases presented to our clinic. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Between 1997 and 2009, there were 72 cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage presenting with non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent surgical treatment at our clinic and were evaluated retrospectively. Re sults: Among the 72 cases, 41 (57%) were males, and 31 (43%) were females. The etiology in 52 (72%) of the cases was hypertension. Regarding the location of the hematoma, 27 (37%) of the cases were lobar, 30 cases (41%) were thalamic, 13 (18%) were cerebellar and 2 cases (4%) were in the putaminal location. The mortality rate in cases that received surgery within the first 8 hours was 41% (18 cases), and the rate was 61% (14 cases) in patients that received surgery between 8-24 hours. If surgery was performed between 24-48 hours following the initial hematoma, the mortality rate was 80% (4 cases). Dis cus si on: In spontaneous intracerebral hematoma, surgical treatment performed as quickly as possible following consideration of the initial neurological examination, age, volume of hematoma and its localization reduces mortality. Clinically there is no advantage in using surgical treatment over medical treatment in cases with a poor neurological condition.