Settling of the Turkish-Afghanistan friendship in the beginning of the 20th. century was pionered by the Turks who had gone to Afghanistan through the efforts of Mahmud Beg Tarzi in the year 1909. Among those, Dr. Münir and Dr. Fahima arriving shortly after him, had done important studies in the field of health. They established and ran a modern hospital, and made important social contributions by starting vaccine campaigns against epidemic diseases. Official relations between Afghanistan and Turkey that started with the signing of Turk-Afghan Alliance Pact in Moscow in March 1st, 1921 continued to develop after the establishment of the Turkish Republic. Although Afghanistan's understanding and the practice of ruling is different from the Republic model, Afghanistan has followed Turkey"s modernisation project closely. Turkey, as in the case of independence war, also became a model for Afghanistan during the process of modernisation. After the starting of the official relations, a health council was sent to Afghanistan in 1927, following Emanullah Khan's wish and Atatürk's directives. The president of this council, Dr. Rifki Kamil Urga, had established Afghanistan's first medical faculty, and became the first dean of the school. A sanatorium was built in his name by King Mehmed Nadir Khan for in commemoration of Dr Urga's services. Dr. Rabi Barkin and Dr Fuad Togar, who were also in the council, contributed to the medical education in Afghanistan by writing books in Persian language, as well as fulfilling their administrative and education duties in the faculty. As a result of the researches made on this subject in Turkey and in Kabul Embassy in Afghanistan, it was found that 70 physicians, 6 pharmacists, 16 veterinars and 1 midwife worked in Afghanistan and played a role in the development of Turk-Afghan medical relations.