© 2017 Via Medica.Objectives: Discrepancies between abnormal cervical cytology or high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) status (cytology negative/HPV positive) and subsequent histological findings are a common occurrence. After using co-testing, the discrepancies between the HR-HPV status and cervical cytology have become an issue. In this study, we aimed to determine the characteristics of women with a discrepancy between histology and cytology/HR-HPV status, in terms of diagnosis, review and identification. Material and methods: A total of 52 women, patients of the University Hospital between 2013-2015, with cytohistological or HR-HPV status discrepancy were recruited for the study and retrospectively analyzed. The cytological samples were liquid-based Pap smears, classified according to the 2001 Bethesda system. The HR-HPV status was identified using the Hybrid Capture 2 HR-HPV DNA assay. The histological samples were obtained by cervical biopsy as well as large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ). Results: A cytohistological discrepancy was demonstrated in patients with (-)cytology/HR-HPV(+), ASCUS, LSIL, ASC-H, HSIL, AGC-NOS: 17.3%, 23.07%, 26.9%, 9.5%, 17.3% and 5.7%, respectively. When the degree of atypia in cytology increases, the concurrency of cervical cytology with biopsy also increases. A positive HR-HPV co-test result (19/24, 79.1%) was observed in nearly all CIN2 ≥ (+) cases. Our study emphasizes the significance of HR-HPV testing to determine CIN2 ≥ (+) cases, even in the presence of a normal cytological result. Conclusions: In case of cytohistological or HR-HPV discrepancies, a careful review of the HR-HPV status and the degree of cytological atypia should be performed before further intervention.