© 2015, International Journal of Ophthalmology (c/o Editorial Office). All rights reserved.AIM: To determine the effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties using Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality. METHODS: Using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the temperament and character profiles of 41 participants with refractive errors (17 with myopia, 12 with hyperopia, and 12 with myopic astigmatism) were compared to those of 30 healthy control participants. Here, temperament comprised the traits of novelty seeking, harm-avoidance, and reward dependence, while character comprised traits of self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. RESULTS: Participants with refractive error showed significantly lower scores on purposefulness, cooperativeness, empathy, helpfulness, and compassion (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05, and P<0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: Refractive error might have a negative influence on some character traits, and different types of refractive error might have different temperament and character properties. These personality traits may be implicated in the onset and/or perpetuation of refractive errors and may be a productive focus for psychotherapy.