Validity and reliability study of the Khalfa’s hyperacusis questionnaire with using ULL in tinnitus patients


European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol.280, no.3, pp.1485-1492, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 280 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00405-022-07727-7
  • Journal Name: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1485-1492
  • Keywords: Hyperacusis, Loudness, Questionnaire, Tinnitus, Turkish
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Purpose: This study aims to investigate the validity and reliability of the Khalfa’s hyperacusis questionnaire (HQ) in Turkish tinnitus patients with hyperacusis using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULLs) and to determine a cutoff score for tinnitus patients specifically. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty subjects with a mean age ± SD of 45.27 ± 14.43 years ranging from 18 to 75 participated in the study. HQ and ULLs were used as measures of hyperacusis. The participants were divided into two groups due to ULLs ≤ 90 dB in one or both ears (Group 1) and 56 participants have ULLs > 90 dB (Group 2). Results: The mean HQ score of the participants was 19.55 ± 7.18 points, Group 1 (n = 84) HQ mean score was 21.97 ± 7.08, and Group 2 (n = 56) 15.91 ± 5.56 points, and the cutoff point was found 16.50. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups in total HQ (p < 0.001), attention, social, and emotional subscales of HQ. Conclusions: Hyperacusis questionnaire using with ULLs is a precise tool for the steps of identifying, categorizing, and managing the hyperacusis in patients with tinnitus. However, the effect of the tinnitus on hyperacusis should be considered, because it causes additional problems.