© 2017, Turkish Biochemistry Society. All rights reserved.Background: In this study, we planned to evaluate the comparison of serum prolidase activity with other biochemical markers. Methods: The patient group was consisted of totally 73 patients with 21 male and 18 female who were diagnosed as chronic renal failure (CRF) and were undergoing peritoneal dialysis while 21 male and 13 female who were undergoing hemodialysis. The control group was composed of 54 healthy volunteers, including 25 men and 29 women. Serum and erythrocyte prolidase activities were measured in both patient and control groups and the relationship between serum prolidase activities and metabolic markers of bone (osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, calcitonin, vitamin D and parathormone) were compared in both groups. Results: There was a significant difference between the serum prolidase activity of peritoneal dialysis and prehemodialysis groups as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Serum prolidase activity of the pre-hemodialysis group was lower than that of post-hemodialysis group and there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference between prolidase activities in erythrocytes of prehemodialysis and control groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Kidney is the most prolidase-rich tissue in the human body. According to our results, the prolidase activity decreased in CRF; and the level of decrement was independent from the hemodialysis procedure.