Adiponectin functions as an anti-inflammatbry and anti-atherogenic factor, and the decreased plasma adiponectin is a risk factor for coronary disease. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in plasma levels of adiponectin, a potential parameter for atherosclerosis, in patients underwent surgical revascularization. We included forty patients with atherosclerosis (age, 58 ± 9 years; body mass index [BMI] 26.93 ± 2.3 kg/m2) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Control group consisted of 40 healthy volunteers, matched for age, gender and BMI (age, 56 ± 6 years; BMI, 26.78 ± 2.3 kg/m2). We measured various parameters, including high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) indexes, and adiponectin. The baseline profile of the patients before CABG showed higher levels of serum hsCRP (13.15 ± 2.40 mg/l vs 3.97 ± 1.07mg/l) and HOMA-IR (1.86 ± 0.30 vs 1.26 ± 0.33) and lower plasma adiponectin levels (7.02 ± 2.01 μg/ml vs 25.46 ± 3.9 μg/ml), compared to controls (p < 0.001 for each parameter): Plasma adiponectin level was increased one month after CABG from the baseline level to 8.67 ± 2.05 μg/ml (p < 0.001), although the level was still lower than the control value. Thus, postoperative adiponectin level might be helpful for evaluating the progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover, CABG significantly decreased hsCRP to 7.25 ± 1.89 mg/l and HOMA-IR to 1.59 ± 0.33, although these levels were higher than the controls. These results suggest that CABG decreases the cardiac risk factors in atherosclerotic patients. © 2007 Tohoku University Medical Press.