Turkish Neurosurgery, vol.25, no.1, pp.43-52, 2015 (SCI-Expanded)
Aim: To investigate the effects of amifostine, a cytoprotective agent, on pathophysiological changes in vasogenic brain edema induced by an experimental cold injury model and to compare these changes with dexamethasone. Material and Methods: A total of 138 rats divided into 6 groups. Brain water content (BWC), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in brain tissue were calculated to evaluate the pathophysiological changes following experimental cold injury. In addition, effects of cold injury on cell structure were assessed with direct light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: Extent of edema, MDA and MPO levels were significantly higher in cold injury groups than in controls. Although a decrease was noted in these parameters in both the amifostine and dexamethasone groups, the differences were significant only for MDA concentration in dexamethasone group, and for MPO activity in both groups. In addition, there was a significant difference between the group in which amifostine was administered prior to cold injury and dexamethasone group for MPO activity. Histopathologically, positive effects were observed in treatment groups. Conclusion: Despite several positive effects of amifostine, its superiority to dexamethasone could not be clearly demonstrated. Further experimental and clinical studies are warranted to better delineate the neuroprotective effects of amifostine.