Antimicrobial Activity and Biocompatibility of Antibiotic-Loaded Chitosan Hydrogels as a Potential Scaffold in Regenerative Endodontic Treatment

Aksel H., Mahjour F., Bosaid F., ÇALAMAK S., Azim A. A.

Journal of Endodontics, vol.46, no.12, pp.1867-1875, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.joen.2020.09.007
  • Journal Name: Journal of Endodontics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1867-1875
  • Keywords: Antibacterial gel, chitosan, dental pulp stem cell, fibrin, hydrogel, regenerative endodontics, HUMAN DENTAL-PULP, STEM-CELLS, ENTEROCOCCUS-FAECALIS, INTRACANAL MEDICAMENTS, FIBRIN GEL, DIFFERENTIATION, SURVIVAL, GROWTH, TRIPLE
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: No


© 2020Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of several antibiotic-loaded hydrogel scaffolds against Enterococcus faecalis, as well as their ability to stimulate proliferation and mineralization of dental pulp stem cells. Methods: Fibrin (Fg) or chitosan-fibrin hydrogels (Ch) were prepared using 12.5 mg/mL fibrinogen and 0.4% (w/v) chitosan. Triple antibiotics, clindamycin-modified triple antibiotic paste, or double antibiotics were loaded in gels (1 mg/mL). Antibacterial effect against E. faecalis biofilm was determined by using colony-forming units (CFUs) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Cell viability and morphology were determined by loading cells into different gels at 7 and 14 days using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 cell viability assay and Live & Dead cell analysis. Mineralization was detected by using alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red staining activity. Results: Antibiotic-loaded Fg gel and Ch gel alone without antibiotics resulted in a significant reduction in CFUs compared with the positive control (P < .05). When antibiotics were loaded in Ch gel, there were no CFUs detected in any groups (P < .05). CLSM images showed dense red areas with mostly dead bacteria on the dentin surface in antibiotic-loaded Ch groups, which showed significantly less live bacteria compared with the other groups (P < .05). Triple antibiotic-loaded Fg and Ch gels resulted in a dramatic decrease in the mineralized nodule formation compared with all other gel groups (P < .05). Ch hydrogels resulted in round cell morphology up to 7 days. Ch alone or with double antibiotic paste showed more cell spreading with spindle-shaped morphology at 14 days and higher alkaline phosphatase activity compared with other antibiotic-loaded Ch groups (P > .05). Conclusions: Double antibiotic-loaded Ch gel appears to enhance the antibacterial properties while maintaining higher cell viability, cell spreading, and mineralization activity, compared with all the other scaffolds investigated.