© 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.Background: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is thought to play a role in the metastatic process of various malignancies. The more stable precursor of GRP, pro-GRP (ProGRP), has been shown to be secreted by neuroendocrine tumors. This study was designed to assess the validity of ProGRP as a diagnostic marker in endometrioid adenocarcinomas (EAs) of the endometrium. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with a diagnosis of EA, 23 patients with endometrial hyperplasia, and 32 age-matched controls with normal endometrial histology were recruited for this study. Serum ProGRP and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) values were compared between groups. Results: Median serum ProGRP levels were significantly higher in the cancer group compared to corresponding levels in both the hyperplasia and control groups (p = 0.008 and p < 0.001 respectively; endometrial cancer: 27.5 pg/mL; hyperplasia: 16.1 pg/mL; controls: 12.9 pg/mL). Age and endometrial thickness were positively correlated with ProGRP levels (r = 0.322, p = 0.006 and r = 0.269, p = 0.023, respectively). Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analyses for EA revealed a threshold of 20.81 pg/mL, with a sensitivity of 60.7% and specificity of 81.4%, positive predictive value of 68% and negative predictive value of 76.1%. Conclusion: Significantly higher ProGRP levels were observed in patients with EA than in controls. Serum ProGRP has good diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for EA.