Seseli L. is an important genus of the Apiaceae family, with a large number of aromatic species. It is used in traditional medicine extensively, but there is quite limited information on their phytochemicals and biological activities. Seseli petraeum M. Bieb. grows in Northern Anatolia, and there are no phytochemical studies on this species. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the extracts of S. petraeum on A549 lung cancer cell proliferation. For this purpose, the antiproliferative effect was determined via MTT assay, and the extracts obtained from the root of S. petraeum showed a significant inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. The hexane extract of the root exhibited potent inhibition on A549 cancer cell growth at the 24th hour with 3.432 mg/mL IC50 value. The results also showed that the hexane extract had displayed cytotoxic effect through an arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and induced a poptosis as well as DNA damage of A549 cells. Consequently, this study demonstrated the antiproliferative potential of the extracts from S. petraeum, especially hexane extract from the roots. Further studies are required to identify the mechanisms underlying these effects.