Considering the potential adverse effects of selenium and iodine deficiencies, and taking into account the widespread but often careless use of pyrethroid insecticides and their possible endocrine-disrupting effects, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fenvalerate on thyroid hormone parameters in both healthy and selenium- and/or iodine-deficient rats. Fenvalerate exposure had no effect on the TT4 levels of healthy controls but caused significant increases both in iodine deficiency (ID) and selenium plus iodine deficiency (ISeD), and a significant decrease in selenium deficiency (SeD). Dramatic increases in TT3 of all groups were observed by fenvalerate. Moreover, it caused insignificant decrease of thyroid stimulating hormone in healthy controls, no effect in SeD, and significant elevation in ID and ISeD. These results, thus, showed that the widely used pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate has the potential to change significantly thyroid hormone parameters both in normal and deficiency states, and consequences of its thyroid status modifying effect might be of critical importance particularly in sensitive individuals and patients with thyroid dysfunction. © 2009 Humana Press Inc.