Investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis by active screening in primary schools in sanliurfa, Turkey §anliurfa'da ilköǧretim Okullarinda Aktif Tarama Yontemiyle Kütanöz Ley§manyaz Araştirmasi


Yentür Doni N., Gürses G., Dikme R., Şimşek Z., Muratoǧlu M., Vildiz Zeyrek F., ...More

Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni, vol.50, no.4, pp.559-568, 2016 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 50 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.32180
  • Title of Journal : Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni
  • Page Numbers: pp.559-568
  • Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, active screening, primary school, student, CLINICAL-FEATURES, CHILDREN, CHILDHOOD, REGION, IRAN, BAM

Abstract

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Sanliurfa, a province located at southestem part of Turkey. The aims of this study were to determine CL cases among children aged 7-15 years attending primary schools and evaluate the demographical and clinical characteristics by active screening method. In our study, a total of 163.464 children attending to 123 primary schools have been evaluated in terms of CL prevalence between 2010 to 2012 period. Accordingly, 67.585, 72.279 and 23.600 students studying in 74, 37 and 12 primary schools were actively screened, respectively. Children suspected with CL were invited to the Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Oriental Sore, Sanliurfa Division of Turkish Public Health Institute. Two slides were prepared from bloodless, serous fluid of the skin lesions and stained with Giemsa for the microscopic examination to identify Leishmania amastigotes. The lesions were also evaluated according to their clinical manifestations, size, duration and number. In the study, 455 (%0.3) of the children were diagnosed as CL. The incidence of CL cases was 0.41%, 0.14%, and 0.31% in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Of the CL cases, 250 (54.9%) were female and 205 (45.1 %) were male with a mean age of 10.54 ± 2.42 years. Most of the cases (64.2%) were in 7-11 years old group, while 35.8% were in 12-15 years old group. The average number of the CL lesions was 1.78±0.7, ranging from one to fifteen. Single lesions were detected in 281 cases (61.8%), whereas double, triple and multiple lesions (£ 4) were detected in 87 (19.1%), 51 (11.2%) and 36 (7.9%) of the CL cases, respectively. The lesions were mostly involved on face (n= 280, 61.5%) and especially cheeks (133/280, 47.5%), followed by upper (n= 127, 27.9%) and lower (n=39, 8.6%) extremities. The average duration of lesions was 13.40 ± 0.47 months (range: 4-104 weeks) and the average size of lesions was 10.32 ± 0.4 mm (range: 3-10 mm). Among all, mostly nodular (n= 211, 46.4%) and ulcerative (n=204, 44.8%) lesions were recorded. Of the cases 330 (72.5%) were diagnosed as acute CL (duration of lesions were £ 24 months), while 125 (27.5%) were chronic CL (duration of lesions were > 24 months). Leishmaniasis recidivans were identified in a total of five (1.1 %) cases, of them one was acute and four was chronic CL cases. Twenty- five relatives of the children with CL were diagnosed as new CL cases in the 2011 -2012 period. Most of the patients (n= 437, 96%) were successfully treated with topical pentavalent antimonials, however 18 (4%) who were unresponsive to local therapy were treated systemically. Our findings showed that local transmission is ongoing in terms of CL. It should be kept in mind that, primary school aged children might be responsible for the ongoing local transmission in endemic regions and the local transmission may be decreased with the early diagnosis and treatment of CL cases.