© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Objective: The aim of this study was to express the effects of demographic characteristics, the type of the surgery, tumour characteristics and adjuvant therapy on urinary and sexual dysfunctions. Materials and method: Pre-operational urinary and sexual dysfunctions of the patients were evaluated by using the surveys prepared according to International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) in men and Index of Female Sexual Function (IFSF) in women. Findings: A total of 56 patients were included in the study; 20 of them were women and 36 of them were men. The mean age was 56. Abdominoperineal resection (APR) was performed on 11 patients, and low anterior resection (LAR) was performed on 45. The post-treatment IPSS classes were worsened at a rate of 12.7 % compared to the pre-treatment. The mean post-treatment sexual dysfunction score of both men and women were decreased by 27.5 and 17.8 %, respectively. Rectal tumours located in the lower part resulted in more sexual dysfunction. Conclusion: The tumour in the 1/3 lower part of the rectal area was determined to be the most effective factor that caused both urinary and sexual dysfunction. Patients should be informed about the urinary and sexual dysfunctions in the pre-operative consultations.