Diabetes is associated with increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defenses. Thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) is a cytosolic thiol antioxidant and redox-active protein which plays a vital role in the maintenance of reduced intracellular redox state. In this study, the authors examined whether 4-week treatments with sodium selenate and doxycycline-a metalloproteinase-2 inhibitor which also has antioxidant-like effects-offset perturbations in oxidative stress and antioxidant protection in rat liver and skeletal muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (SID) model. Experimental diabetes decreased TRX-1 levels in skeletal muscle and liver. On the other hand, SID increased oxidative stress marker protein carbonyl levels and decreased oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), an indicator of antioxidant capacity, in liver. A 4-week treatment of sodium selenate to diabetic rats decreased blood glucose levels moderately, while doxycycline treatment caused a reduction in weight loss of diabetic rats. Both doxycycline and sodium selenate prevented diabetes-induced decrease of TRX-1 levels in skeletal muscle, whereas only doxyxycline was effectively preventing diabetes-induced decrease of TRX-1 in liver. Furthermore, both treatments prevented diabetes-induced altered levels of protein carbonyls and ORAC in liver, and restored free and total protein thiol levels in both skeletal muscle and liver. In conclusion, the data of this study provides further evidence that sodium selenate and doxycycline treatments may control oxidative stress and improve antioxidant defense in diabetes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.