Effects of Alendronate on Rate of Distraction in Rabbit Mandibles

Tekin U., Tüz H. H., Önder E., Özkaynak Ö., KORKUSUZ P.

Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol.66, no.10, pp.2042-2049, 2008 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


Purpose: Bisphosphonates are used for inhibiting bone resorption in several diseases. In this experimental study, the effects of alendronate on the mandibular distraction gap in rabbits at 2 different rates were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The study was performed using 15 New Zealand white rabbits. Group 1 consisted of animals with distraction at the rate of 1 mm/day. Group 2 consisted of animals with distraction at the rate of 2 mm/day. These experimental groups had a postoperative alendronate injection during the first 3 days of their distraction phase. Group 3 consisted of animals with distraction at the rate of 1 mm/day, without alendronate injections. Distraction was performed on only the left sides of all animals until a gap of 10 mm was achieved. On postoperative day 45, the animals were sacrificed, and the mandibles of all animals were evaluated radiographically and histologically, and with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Radiographic images were also evaluated using transmission densitometry (TD). Results: Histologically, bone healing was found to be significantly accelerated in groups 1 and 2 compared with group 3 (P < .05). Bone healing was superior in group 2, but the difference was not statistically significant compared with group 1. The TD results revealed no statistical difference between experimental groups, whereas the results for group 2 showed significantly denser osteogenic formation in the distraction gap compared with group 3. There was a significant increase in mean bone mineral density in the experimental groups compared with the control group. Conclusion: Histologic, TD, and DEXA results showed that alendronate injections during the distraction phase may be effective in accelerating new bone formation in the distraction gap in rabbit mandibles. The TD results also support the concept that an administration of alendronate may allow a 2 mm/day elongation instead of 1 mm/day in the rabbit mandible. © 2008 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.