The most concrete product of a scientific study is a published article. The publication process needs to efforts of editors and reviewers in addition to authors. The most important information for editorial decision is based on the comments of reviewers in the publication process. The reviewers are the scientists who have competency for the research field of the manuscript. The aim of the study, relevance of the methods used for this aim, correct presentation and interpretation of the results, and the most importantly, novelty of the study should be evaluated in the peer review process. The queries of whether the study give new information and adding value to the science should be objectively answered. The reviewers should be unprejudiced and constructive, and should aim to achieve publication of the study if there is not fraud or the study is not totally redundant and erroneously planned. Comments of the reviewers are the most important step of publication process for improvement of the study and adding novelty to the science. Shortcomings of the study should be clearly stated by the reviewers to the authors. If necessary, additional references should be suggested to the authors. One of the most important issues is confidentiality in peer review process. Currently, authors and reviewers are blinded to each other's identity in many journals. However, there is a tendency of openness. Identity of authors are revealed to the reviewers in some journals. And a totally open method is implemented in some journals, wherein both authors and reviewers know the identity of each other. A special attention should be paid to ethical standards in peer review process. Peer review process is changing today. There is a tendency towards open system by the facilities of Internet. © TurkJBiochem.com.