© 2018 Journal of Cytology | Indian Academy of Cytologists | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow .Introduction: Differentiation between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from benign mimickers is a well-known problem in cytological materials. Recent studies incorporated biological markers into this question and some studies showed that expression of S100P, IMP3, and maspin as well as nonexpression of von Hippel-Lindau gene product (pVHL) were significantly correlated with PDAC. In this study, we aimed to investigate diagnostic value of maspin, IMP3, S100P, and pVHL immunostaining in fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of pancreatic lesions. Materials and Method: In all, 33 cases of FNAB cell blocks of PDAC and 34 cases of surgical non-neoplastic pancreas specimens which were retrieved from the archives slides from 2007 to 2011 were included in this study. All the cases were stained with maspin, IMP3, S100P, and pVHL. Expression patterns of markers were scored and compared with benign mimickers. Test performance of each antibody and possible antibody combinations were also evaluated. Results: The study was composed of 33 PDAC and 34 control cases (8 chronic pancreatitis, 3 mucinous cystic neoplasm, and 23 nontumoral pancreatic tissue of PDAC). Diagnostic sensitivity for malignancy in S100P, IMP3, and maspin was 84.8%, 81.8%, and 87.5%, respectively. Specificity of these three markers was 100%. Sensitivity and specificity of pVHL for detecting nontumoral pancreatic tissue were 100% and 81.8%, respectively. When maspin, IMP3, and S100P expression were used together as triple test, sensitivity was 62.5% and specificity 100%. However, when any two of each three markers were evaluated (triple test/dual response), sensitivity reached 93.8% and specificity 100%. Conclusion: We observed that dual response in triple test (positive staining with two of these three markers) of maspin, IMP3, and S100P immunocytochemistry is very sensitive and specific in differential diagnosis of PDA and non-neoplastic pancreatic lesions. pVHL may have an additional role, when triple assessment is not satisfactory.