© 2021 American Association of EndodontistsIntroduction: This study aimed to compare ProGlider (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and R-Pilot (VDW, Munich, Germany) instruments in terms of their cyclic fatigue resistance using an artificial stainless steel canal showing an abrupt apical curvature, torsional resistance according to the ISO specification, and topographic changes on the instrument surface after glide path management in mesial canals of mandibular first molars with the abrupt curvature selected based on their micro–computed tomographic examination. Methods: Eighty instruments were used: 40 ProGlider (size 0.16, .02v taper) and 40 R-Pilot (size 0.125, .04 taper) instruments. The cyclic fatigue resistance was tested in a static test model using an artificial canal with an abrupt apical curvature (angle of curvature of 90° and radius of curvature of 2 mm). The torsional resistance test was performed according to ISO 3630-1 specifications. To determine surface topography of the unused and used instruments, mesial root canals of mandibular molars with an abrupt apical curvature were selected to prepare a glide path with either the ProGlider or R-Pilot instrument. An optical profilometer and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the surface properties. Normally distributed torsional and cyclic resistance data were analyzed using the Student t test, whereas quantitative data obtained by the optical profilometer were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis H test with a 5% significance threshold. Results: The R-Pilot showed significantly higher cyclic fatigue and torsional resistance than the ProGlider (P < .05). Angular deflection values were similar between instruments (P < .05). Measurements made from the blade area showed that the surface roughness values of the ProGlider were larger. Cutting blade measurements showed that unused instruments had significantly greater roughness values than used ones (P < .05). Although there was a 14% increase between the blade edge radii of the used and unused R-Pilot instruments, this difference was determined as 61% in ProGlider instruments. Conclusions: The R-Pilot exhibited greater cyclic fatigue strength than the ProGlider when tested in an artificial canal with an inner diameter of 1.0 mm and an abrupt apical curvature. Torsional resistance of the R-Pilot was higher than the ProGlider, but the angular deflection values were similar. Glide path preparation in a mesial root canal with an abrupt apical curvature did not increase the surface roughness of both instruments but resulted in a greater blade edge radius.