Evaluation of Galectin-3 in Graves’ Disease With and Without Ophthalmopathy

Akın M., Karaaslan H., Eren M. A., Koyuncu İ., Sabuncu T.

Endocrinology Research and Practice, vol.27, no.2, pp.85-88, 2023 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.5152/tjem.2022.173
  • Journal Name: Endocrinology Research and Practice
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.85-88
  • Keywords: Galectin-3, Graves’ disease, ophthalmopathy
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: No


Objective: There is a link between thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and Graves’ disease; however, the exact pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Galectin-3 expressed by immune and inflammatory cells plays a role in various vital cellular functions as well as supports angiogenesis and fibroblastic activity. The role of Galectin-3 in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy has not been studied yet, so we aimed to evaluate the alteration of Galectin-3 level in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from May 2018 to April 2020. This study consisted of 63 participants, who were divided into 3 groups: group 1 was composed of 21 patients with Graves’ disease with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, group 2 consisted of 21 patients with Graves’ disease without orbitopathy, and group 3 consisted of 21 healthy individuals. Results: Although the mean Galectin-3 levels in group 1 (8.6 ± 4.1 ng/mL) and group 2 (7.1 ± 5.4 ng/mL) were higher than group 3 (3.7 ± 2.8 ng/mL), there was no significant difference in Galectin-3 levels between groups 1 and 2 (P = .001 and P = .030, respectively). In Pearson’s correlation analyses, there was a significantly positive correlation between Galectin-3 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (r = 0.452, P = .003) and a negative correlation between Galectin-3 and thyrotropin receptor autoantibody (r = –.318, P = .040). Conclusion: In this study, it is shown for the first time that Galectin-3 levels are higher in patients with Graves’ disease than in healthy individuals. Increasing Galectin-3 levels may trigger autoimmunity or may lead to the development of thyroid hyperplasia. Although Galectin-3 level was found to be high in patients with Graves, we did not find any relationship between Galectin-3 and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.