Meiotic segregation patterns of carriers of Robertsonian translocations (RT) are important for assessing the risk of unbalanced forms. We investigated the ratio of sperm with t(21;21) to sperm with nullisomy for chromosome 21; the segregation of the t(21;21) along with sex chromosomes, and also interchromosomal effects on chromosome 10 by using three color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomere specific (Tel 21q) and centromere-specific alpha satellite probes for chromosomes X, Y, and 10. The percentage of cosegregation of t(21;21) with sex chromosomes (49.50%) and without sex chromosomes (46.98%) was not significant. There are no significant differences between the percentages of cosegregation of t(21;21) with chromosome X (23.36%) and with chromosome Y (26.16%). No evidence of an interchromosomal effect on chromosome 10 was detected, the percentage of chromosome 10 aneuploidy being similar to that in controls. In addition, the frequency of diploid sperm nuclei was not significantly higher in the carrier (0.32%) than in the controls (0.44%) (P > 0.05). The sex ratio was similar within the carrier and the controls and between the carrier and the control. Three color-FISH analysis, using different probe combinations, seems a rapid and accurate tool for direct analysis of meiotic segregation product. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.