Hemangiopericytoma is a mesenchymal neoplasm originating from pericytes - a cell type that surround capillaries. Its primary localization in the lung is extremely rare. A 41-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with an abnormal opacity on his chest X-ray. A primary tumor, located in the left upper lobe, was resected, and final diagnosis was hemangiopericytoma of pulmonary origin. The patient has been well for 2 years since the operation with no sign of recurrence or metastasis. A rare case of primary pulmonary tumor has been presented, and possibilities and difficulties in diagnosis as well as therapy are discussed. © 2005 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.