Development and Evaluation of Paclitaxel Nanoparticles Using a Quality-by-Design Approach

Yerlikaya F., Ozgen A., VURAL İ., Guven O., Karaagaoglu E., Khan M. A., ...More

JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, vol.102, no.10, pp.3748-3761, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 102 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/jps.23686
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.3748-3761
  • Keywords: paclitaxel, quality by design, design of experiments, Plackett-Burman, Box-Behnken, formulation, multivariate analysis, mathematical model, nanoparticles, polymeric drug delivery systems, DRUG-DELIVERY SYSTEMS, FORMULATION VARIABLES, PLGA NANOPARTICLES, CYCLOSPORINE-A, IN-VITRO, QBD, OPTIMIZATION, VARIABILITY, RESISTANCE, LIPOSOMES
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: No


The aims of this study were to develop and characterize paclitaxel nanoparticles, to identify and control critical sources of variability in the process, and to understand the impact of formulation and process parameters on the critical quality attributes (CQAs) using a quality-by-design (QbD) approach. For this, a risk assessment study was performed with various formulation and process parameters to determine their impact on CQAs of nanoparticles, which were determined to be average particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. Potential risk factors were identified using an Ishikawa diagram and screened by Plackett-Burman design and finally nanoparticles were optimized using Box-Behnken design. The optimized formulation was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and gas chromatography. It was observed that paclitaxel transformed from crystalline state to amorphous state while totally encapsulating into the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were spherical, smooth, and homogenous with no dichloromethane residue. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the developed nanoparticles are more efficient than free paclitaxel in terms of antitumor activity (more than 25%). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that understanding formulation and process parameters with the philosophy of QbD is useful for the optimization of complex drug delivery systems. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:3748-3761, 2013