Are plastics a threat for health? A general overview of phthalates Plastikler Saglik Için Bir Tehdit mi? Ftalatlara Genel Bir Bakis

Yildiztekin K. G., ERKEKOĞLU Ü. P., GÜMÜŞEL B.

Fabad Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol.42, no.2, pp.111-123, 2017 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Journal Name: Fabad Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.111-123
  • Keywords: Endocrine disrupting chemicals, Phthalates, Reproductive toxicity, Thyroid toxicity
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: No


Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are substances that can interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, metabolism, elimination, receptor binding of natural hormones. There are several EDCs widely present in the environment and humans have abundant exposure to these chemicals via inhalation, oral and dermal routes. Phthalates are the dialkyl or alkyl/aryl esters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and they are plasticizers, which are used to soften PVC materials. General population is highly exposed to these substances. They can exert developmental, reproductive, hepatic, renal and thyroidal toxicity. Infants and children, particularly, young males, are more susceptible to the toxic effects of phthalates. Phthalates are suggested to cause "testicular dysgenesis syndrome (phthalate syndrome, TDS)", which is characterized by decreased anogenital distance, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, malformations in prostate, epididymis and seminal vesicles. In addition, phthalate exposure is suggested to be one of the most important the underlying factors of early (between 35-40 years) testicular cancers. This review will focus on phthalates, their biotransformation, exposure routes, dose concept, toxic effects in different systems/organs, association with endocrine diseases and regulations.