OBJECTIVE: To compare the two surgical techniques (laparoscopy vs laparotomy), postoperative complications, duration of hospitalization and patient profiles in the management of mature cystic teratoma of ovary. DESIGN-METHOD: One hundred and thirty one patients with ovarian mature cystic teratoma, who were surgically treated during 1994-2003, were retrospectively analysed. Laparoscopy was done for 71 patients, and 60 patients were operated via laparotomy. The two groups were compared for the aspects of demografic properties, symptomatology, operative technique, postoperative complications and duration of hospitalization. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference for the aspects of patient age, the size of the cyst, and bilaterality. Laparoscopy was done in a mean duration of 69±4.1 minutes, and laparotomy was completed in 52±2.8 minutes. Duration of hospitalization was 1.6±0.8 days after laparoscopy and 3.1±0.2 days after laparotomy (p<0.05). There was signficent postoperative complication in both groups. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic techniques are increasingly used in the surgical treatment of mature ovarian cystic teratoma. As compared to laparotomy, laparoscopy was seen to be a suitable method for ovarian cystic teratomas because of decreased intraoperative and postoperative complications, shorter hospital stay, and decreased development de novo adhesions.