© The Author(s) 2019.Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of total hip arthroplasty (THA) on sagittal pelvic parameters and to evaluate the effect of sagittal pelvic parameters on acetabular cup orientation. Methods: The study included 86 patients who underwent THA for a diagnosis of unilateral coxarthrosis between 2011 and 2015. Measurements were taken of the preoperative and postoperative acetabular cup inclination (ACI), anteversion, and sagittal pelvic parameters. The effect of THA on sagittal pelvic parameters and the effects of the sagittal pelvic parameters on acetabular cup orientation were investigated. Results: The sagittal pelvic tilt values calculated were mean 9.7° ± 6.3° (2°; 23°) preoperatively and 11.0° ± 6.1° (2°; 25°) postoperatively. The increase in postoperative pelvic incidence (PI) values was determined to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). The preoperative PI values had no significant effect on ACI, but in cases with high preoperative PI values, a tendency to high anteversion values was determined. The mean inclination values were found to be 40.2° ± 11.0° in the low PI group, 41.7° ± 7.4° in the normal PI group, and 44.1° ± 8.3° in the high PI group. As no increase in inclination values was observed with an increase in PI values, no statistical correlation was determined (p = 0.343). Average of anteversion values in the low PI group was 9.2° ± 13.7°, in the normal PI group 19.3° ± 10.5°, and in the high PI group 21.1° ± 12.5°. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Evaluating the results of this study, it can be concluded that varying PI values do affect the acetabular cup anterversion in THA. So, preoperative assessment of PI values is important in preventing postoperative acetabular cup malposition.