© 2017 by The European Academy of Otology and Neurotology and The Politzer Society.OBJECTIVE: To compare the graft success rates and audiological outcomes of bilaterally performed type 1 tympanoplasty using cartilage palisades or temporal fascia in children. MATERIALS and METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who underwent type 1 tympanoplasty at Medical Park Hospital between May 2007 and February 2013. 27 patients (54 ears) were enrolled in the study: 15 (30 ears) in the palisade cartilage group and 12 (24 ears) in the fascia group. RESULTS: The graft success rate for the fascia group was 79.2%, and that for the cartilage group was 96.7%. The difference was statistically insignificant (p=0.078). Audiological improvements were seen in both groups, and the difference was statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: The use of temporalis fascia grafting has similar outcomes to palisade cartilage tympanoplasty for both success rate and audiological values in children who have bilateral disease.