Use of 19F-nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-electron capture detection in the quantitative analysis of fluorine-containing metabolites in urine of sevoflurane-anaesthetized patients

Orhan H., Commandeur J., ŞAHİN G., AYPAR Ü., ŞAHİN A. U., Vermeulen N.

Xenobiotica, vol.34, no.3, pp.301-316, 2004 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 34 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2004
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/716494157
  • Journal Name: Xenobiotica
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.301-316
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: Yes


1. The use of fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance (19F-NMR) and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) in the analysis of fluorine-containing products in the urine of sevoflurane-exposed patients was explored. 2. Ten patients were anaesthetized by sevoflurane for 135-660 min at a flow rate of 6 l min-1. Urine samples were collected before, directly after and 24 h after discontinuation of anaesthesia. 3. 19F-NMR analysis of the urines showed the presence of several fluorine-containing metabolites. The main oxidative metabolite, hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP)-glucuronide, showed two strong quartet signals in the 19F-NMR spectrum. HFIP concentrations after β-glucuronidase treatment were quantified by 19F-nuclear magnetic resonance. Concentrations directly after and 24 h after discontinuation of anaesthesia were 131 ± 41 (mean ± SEM) and 61 ± 19 mol mg-1 creatinine, respectively. Urinary HFIP excretions correlated with sevoflurane exposure. 4. Longer scanning times enabled the measurement of signals from two compound A-derived metabolites, i.e. compound A mercapturic acid I (CAMA-I) and compound A mercapturic acid II (CAMA-II), as well as products from β-lyase activation of the respective cysteine conjugates of compound A. The signals of the mercapturic acids, 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)-propanoic acid and 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid were visible after combining and concentrating the patient urines. CAMA-I and -II excretions in patients were completed after 24 h. 5. Since 19F-nuclear magnetic resonance is not sensitive enough, urinary mercapturic acids concentrations were quantified by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. CAMA-I and -II urinary concentrations were 2.3 ± 0.7 and 1.4 ± 0.4 mol mg-1 creatinine, respectively. Urinary excretion of CAMA-I showed a correlation with sevoflurane exposure, whereas CAMA-II did not. 6. The results show that 19F- nuclear magnetic resonance is a very selective and convenient technique to detect and quantify HFIP in non-concentrated human urine. 19F-nuclear magnetic resonance can also be used to monitor the oxidative biotransformation of sevoflurane in anaesthetized patients. Compound A-derived mercapturic acids and 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)-propanoic acid and 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid, however, require more sensitive techniques such as gas chromatography-electron capture detection and/or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification.