The relationship of peri-implant soft tissue wound healing with implant cover screw design: Cross-sectional study

Güney Z., Karacaoğlu F., Barış E., Gezer K. G., Akkaya M. M.

Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, vol.26, no.2, pp.299-308, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 26 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/cid.13272
  • Journal Name: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.299-308
  • Keywords: cover screw, dental implant, peri-implant soft tissue, wound healing
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: No


Introduction: Dental implants are frequently preferred method for oral rehabilitation all over the world. The incidence of various complications such as incorrect prosthesis, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis is high; premature loss of implants is encountered due to osteointegration process not being completed for some unexplained reasons. However, there is no study in the literature examining the nonfunctional period of implants. Closure screws of different implant companies have different designs like surface properties, and areas, where closure screws sit, are important reservoirs for microorganism colonization. Our study aims to evaluate the inflammatory response, epithelial maturation, and epithelial-connective tissue interaction around closure screws. Methods: For this purpose, 52 implants belonging to five different implant companies were included in the study. Tissues removed over the cover screw during fitting of healing caps were used as biopsy material and for epithelial proliferation Ki-67, for epithelium-connective tissue interaction Syndecan-1, and for macrophage activation CD-68 expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyzes were performed to evaluate the presence of gap between the implant and the cover screw. Results: As a result of our study, intensity of subepithelial inflammation between groups wasn't statistically different. Differences in CD-68 and Syndecan-1 levels were obtained at the lamina propria level. H score of CD-68 was statistically significantly different in epithelium (p = 0.032), and H score of Syndecan-1 was different in lamina propria (p = 0.022). There wasn't a statistically significant difference between the groups for Ki-67 (p = 0.151). Conclusion: Our study results indicate that in addition to the implant surface morphology, the design of the closure screws is important in the inflammatory response and epithelial maturation that develops during wound healing. Although the inflammatory response is required for healing, osteointegration, and implant survival, further investigation is needed to investigate the relationship between initial neck resorption and closure screws with radiographic and microbiological examinations.