Ecological and Health Risk Assessment in Road Dust Samples from Various Land Use of Düzce City Center: Towards the Sustainable Urban Development

Isinkaralar K., Isinkaralar O., Bayraktar E. P.

Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol.235, no.1, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 235 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11270-023-06879-4
  • Journal Name: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, ABI/INFORM, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Compendex, Environment Index, Geobase, Greenfile, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Ecological risk index, Health monitoring, Metal pollution, Spatial modeling, Sustainable cities, Urban monitoring
  • Lokman Hekim University Affiliated: Yes


Urban environmental risks are related to dynamic and long-term cross-processes arising from complex interconnected relationships. Although they have various sources, trace metals’ ability to accumulate is relatively high compared to other pollutants. Therefore, for this reason, heavy metals can be found in high amounts in cities, especially in road dust. The targets of the present study are to appoint the levels and sources of trace metals in road dust samples collected from eleven areas in the Düzce city center. Because of their potential health risks, the five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb) are the most commonly studied pollutants. The inhalation of them through the mouth and nose is almost negligible; however, ingestion is a higher potential health risk for children. The hazard index (HI) and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are powerful tools used to assess the level of risk. Factors governing possible contamination mean values were evaluated in the following order: Pb (56.07 mg/kg) > Cu (43.45 mg/kg) > Ni (30.05 mg/kg) > Cr (26.58 mg/kg) > Cd (4.33 mg/kg). The noncarcinogenic risks of Pb poses are relatively higher than those posed by the other four metals for both children and adults. However, HI values of Cd, Pb, and Ni in children were 1.25–1.61, 2.93–3.74, and 1.00–1.14; Cd is 1.05–2.56. The HI values for children are relatively higher than for adults. This paper provides the most significant contribution to road dust is atmospheric deposition by industrial activities and traffic density. Regarding Pb, while I geo is 0.66 in park areas and 0.61 in forest areas, it reaches 0.96 on highways. While Ni is calculated for I geo as 0.52 in forest area, it gets 0.97 in industrial factory surroundings. The findings reveal the multidimensional results of land use policies regarding sustainable urban development. The stochastic model obtained is vital, especially in disadvantaged groups.