BACKGROUND/AIM: The number of melanocytic nevi strongly influences risk of melanoma. Researchers have therefore been prompted to study the epidemiology of nevi, particularly in children. Our aim was to determine the clinical and dermoscopic characteristics of melanocytic nevi in Turkish children and their relationship with environmental factors. METHODS: A total of 180 children were randomly included in the study. A survey was applied including age, sex, sunblock use, sunburn history, mother's dressing style, mother's education, and income. Dermoscopic patterns of nevi were noted. RESULTS: A total of 1,173 melanocytic nevi were examined. The mean number of nevi was 6.53±7.18. The number of melanocytic nevi significantly increased with age (Pearson r=0.616, p=.001). The most common localization was head and neck. A total of 81.1% of children had never used sunblock, and 57.2% of mothers dressed in the Islamic style. The mean number of melanocytic nevi in children whose mothers dressed in the Islamic style was lower than whose mothers dressed in non-Islamic style (p=.015). Sunblock use increased with mother's education (p=.001) and with income (p=.001). Children with more melanocytic nevi used more sunblock (p=.002), and sunblock use increased with age (p=.026). The most common dermoscopic feature was a globular pattern. CONCLUSION: This study lays the foundation for future studies showing the relationship between nevus phenotype, dermoscopic pattern, and social factors. © 2007 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.